Non-linear behavior of root and stem diameter changes in monopodial orchid

Mohd Khairi Nordin, Mohammad Farid Saaid, Nooritawati Md Tahir, Ahmad Ihsan Mohd Yassin, Megat Syahirul Amin Megat Ali


Precision agriculture aims to maximize yield with optimum resources. Vast majority of natural systems are acknowledged as complex and non-linear. However, prior to formulation of precise models, linearity tests are performed to validate plant behavior. This study has presented proof that the water uptake system in monopodial orchid is indeed non-linear. The change in physical growth of root and stem due to temperature and relative humidity factors are observed. The work focused on Ascocenda Fuchs Harvest Moon x (V. Chaophraya x Boots) orchid hybrid. Three complementary methods are presented: linearity tests through 1) regression fitting; 2) scatter plots; and 3) cross-correlation function tests. Root diameter, stem diameter, temperature, and relative humidity are logged at 15 minutes interval for a duration of 71 days. The polynomial equations derived for root diameter and stem diameter changes attained strong regression coefficients. The non-linear behavior is further confirmed by the scatter plots where no linear associations are present between the independent and dependent variables. Subsequently, the cross-correlation function tests conducted on temperature-root diameter, temperature-stem diameter, relative humidity-root diameter, and relative humidity-stem diameter combinations also revealed weak correlation. Despite using different techniques, the behavior of physical changes has been consistently proven to be non-linear.


Linearity test; Orchid; Root diameter; Smart farming; Stem diameter

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Bulletin of EEI Stats

Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics (BEEI)
ISSN: 2089-3191, e-ISSN: 2302-9285
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).