Statistical analysis of air-conditioning and total load diversity in typical residential buildings

Naja Aqilah Hisham, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Aya Hagishima, Fitri Yakub, Hafizah Farhah Saipan Saipol


This research investigated the electricity consumption behaviour of Malaysian occupants in residential buildings by acquiring the electricity usage pattern specifically of air-conditioning (AC) load which consumes more energy and significantly affects the load curve. This paper explored the AC household operation and total load operation characteristics in 20 dwellings located in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. The main outcomes were as follows :1) 10 selected dwellings obtained 0.9 ratio of daily AC usage and 5 dwellings operated the AC for five to six hours daily; 2) The AC usage accounted for 41% at night time and only 17% during day time from the total energy consumption; 3)  The AC load for one dwelling showed a high frequency and strong fluctuations with time; 4) The AC usage showed a positive correlation to outdoor temperature for which the highest and lowest correlation coefficients were 0.52 and -0.10 respectively; 5) The linear correlation between the  AC usage time and the daily AC energy consumption proved the dependency of AC energy consumption on the usage time; 6) Clustering process revealed uncommon behaviour whereby high AC energy consumption was recorded at low outdoor temperature. The findings obtained are useful for residential energy simulations in forecasting realistic AC loads, particularly in hot and humid climate such as in Malaysia.


Air-conditioner; Electricity usage; Residential; Statistical analysis


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